A decrease in face-to-face social contact can precipitate depression. Time spent using the Internet cannot be spent in face-to-face social contact, so psychologists have speculated that sharply increasing Internet use can cause depression. Studies of regular Internet users have found a significantly higher incidence of depression among those who had recently doubled the amount of time they spent using the Internet than among those whose use had not increased. Hence, the psychologists’ speculation is correct.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
A. In general, the reason that the people in the studies had doubled their Internet use was not that they had earlier experienced a significant decrease in opportunities for face-to-face social contact.
B. A sharp decrease in face-to-face social contact is the only change in daily activity that can lead to an increased incidence of depression.
C. Using the Internet presents no opportunities for people to increase the amount of face-to-face social contact they experienced in their daily lives.
D. Regular Internet users who are depressed will experience an immediate improvement in mood if they sharply decrease the amount of time they spend on the Internet.
E. Before they doubled the time they spent on the Internet, the people who did so were already more prone to depression than are regular Internet users in general.
African American drama has, until recently, been rooted in the mimetic tradition of modern American naturalism. The most distinctive attribute of this tradition is the mechanistic, materialistic conception of humanity. Naturalism sees each individual as inextricably bound to the environment and depicts each person as someone controlled by, instead of controlling, concrete reality. As long as African American drama maintained naturalism as its dominant mode, it could only express the “plight of African American people”. Its heroes might declare the madness of reality, but reality inevitably triumphed over them.
The surrealistic plays of Adrienne Kennedy mark one of the first departures from naturalism by an African American dramatist. The overall goal of her work has been to depict the world of the soul and the spirit, not to mirror concrete reality. Within this framework, Kennedy has been able to portray African American minds and souls liberated from their connections to the external environment.
1. Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage?
A. African American drama has been primarily influenced by naturalisms emphasis on the materialistic.
B. African American drama has traditionally acknowledged the relationship between the individual and the environment.
C. African American drama, traditionally naturalistic, has been little influenced by dramatist Kennedy’s spiritual and psychological approach to drama.
D. The work of Kennedy suggests a shift away from a commitment to strict naturalism in African American drama.
E. The work of Kennedy best exemplifies the current interest of African American artists in the spiritual and psychological worlds.
2. According to the passage, Kennedy is concerned with depicting the
A. internal rather than the external life of her characters
B. madness of reality rather than the effects of reality
C. effects of materialism on African American minds and souls
D. relationship between naturalism and the human spirit
E. effects that her characters have on the environment
3. Which of the following statements, if true, would most strengthen the authors assertion that Kennedy’s work marks a serious departure from the tradition described in the first paragraph?
A. Kennedy places the action in a real-life setting that is nevertheless unfamiliar to the average viewer or reader.
B. Kennedy movingly portrays the lives and struggles of prominent African Americans in the United States.
C. Kennedy uses characters found only in ancient African legends and mythology.
D. Kennedy provides insights into American mimetic tradition and dramatic convention.
E. Kennedy depicts the events in a style reminiscent of a television documentary.
Recent studies of ancient Maya water management have found that the urban architecture of some cities was used to divert rainfall runoff into gravity-fed systems of interconnected reservoirs. In the central and southern May Lowlands, this kind of water control was necessary to support large populations throughout the year due to the scarcity of perennial surface water and the seasonal availability of rainfall. Some scholars argue that the concentration of water within the urban core of these sites provided a centralized source of political authority for Maya elites based largely on controlled water access. Such an argument is plausible, however, it is less useful for understanding the sociopolitical implications of water use and control in other, water-rich parts of the Maya region.
1. The author of the passage implies which of the following about the political importance of the type of urban water management system described in the passage?
A. Because the system was centralized, it allowed political control over a widely scattered population.
B. The knowledge required to design and maintain the system became the pretext for Maya elites’political authority.
C. By selectively limiting access to water, Maya elites used the system to curb challenges to their authority
D. The system is not sufficient to explain the sources of centralized political power in all parts of the Maya region
E. The system’s continued maintenance required political authorities to exert control over an increasing proportion of economic resources.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
2. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the water management systems in the central and southern Maya Lowlands?
A. They were implemented in part because of the prevailing pattern of rainfall.
B. They were an integral part of lowland cities’ architecture.
C. They were needed because of insufficient resources such as ponds, rivers and lakes in the lowlands.
A divide between aesthetic and technical considerations has played a crucial role in mapmaking and cartographic scholarship. Since nineteenth century cartographers, for instance, understood themselves as technicians who did not care about visual effects, while others saw themselves as landscape painters. That dichotomy structured the discipline of the history of cartography. Until the 1980s, in what Blakemore and Harley called “the Old is Beautiful Paradigm,” scholars largely focused on maps made before 1800, marveling at their beauty and sometimes regretting the decline of the pre-technical age. Early mapmaking was considered art while modern cartography was located within the realm of engineering utility. Alpers, however, has argued that this boundary would have puzzled mapmakers in the seventeenth century, because they considered themselves to be visual engineers.
1. According to the passage, Alpers would say that the assumptions underlying the “paradigm” were
A. inconsistent with the way some mapmakers prior to 1800 understand their own work
B. dependent on a seventeenth-century conception of mapmaking visual engineering
C. unconcerned with the difference between the aesthetic and technical questions of mapmaking
D. insensitive to divisions among cartographers working in the period after 1800
E. supported by the demonstrable technical superiority of mapmaking made after 1800
2. It can be inferred from the passage that, beginning in the 1980s, historians of cartography
A. placed greater emphasis on the beauty of maps made after 1800
B. expanded their range of study to include more material created after 1800
C. grew more sensitive to the way mapmakers prior to 1800 conceived of their work
D. came to see the visual details of maps as aesthetic objects rather than practical cartographic aids
E. reduced the attention they paid to the technical aspects of mapmaking
Analyzing levels of proportional representation of American Indians in state and local government jobs is important for several reasons. First, the basic idea underlying the theory of representative bureaucracy is that the demographic composition of bureaucracy should mirror the demographic composition of the general public. This is because in addition to its symbolic value, increased access to managerial position may lead to greater responsiveness on the part of policy makers to the policy interests of traditionally disadvantaged groups such as American Indians. Second, the focus on higher level jobs in bureaucracies (as opposed to non-managerial positions) is especially important because managerial positions represent a major source of economic progress for members of traditionally disadvantaged groups, as these jobs confer good salaries, benefits, status, security, and mobility. Third, it is important to know if there has been growth in the American Indian share of more desirable public sector positions over the last two decades. For instance, Peterson and Duncan argue that the population and power of American Indians have been growing in certain states. Peterson and Duncan also suggest that this growth may reflect the possibility that American Indian population are becoming more active in nontraditional areas of politics, assimilating into mainstream culture, and securing with greater frequency leadership positions in non-tribal government.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. summarize a demographic trend overt time
B. present findings on a demographic group
C. analyze the demographic composition of a type of job
D. explain the need for particular social research
E. argue for the implementation of a social policy
2. Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence in the context of the passage as whole?
A. It hypothesizes a phenomenon that might explain a point made in the preceding sentence.
B. It provides evidence that undermines that assertion made in the first sentence.
C. It offers a projection regarding the development of a trend mentioned earlier in the passage.
D. It presents an interpretation of a discrepancy noted earlier in the passage.
E. It proposed an implementation of a policy mentioned in the preceding sentence.
3. The passage suggests which of the following regarding “access to managerial positions” for disadvantaged groups?
A. This access is only significant when the percentage of disadvantaged group members in managerial positions mirrors the percent of that group in the general public.
B. This access is largely the result of policy decisions made response to interest of those groups.
C. This access has meaning apart from any policy benefits it confer on those groups.
D. This access often creates increased access to non-managerial position for those groups.
E. The extent of this access tends to be similar across different disadvantaged groups.